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  • 01-01-1970

QUAD meeting (GS Paper 2 International Organizations)

Quad members recently came together for a ministerial meeting.

Members discussed the urgent need to restore the democratically elected government in Myanmar

They also discussed the priority of strengthening democratic resilience in the broader region.

Quad Grouping:

The quadrilateral security dialogue includes Japan, India, United States, and Australia.

All four nations find a common ground of being the democratic nations and common interests of unhindered maritime trade and security.

The grouping traces its genesis to 2004 when the four countries came together to coordinate relief operations in the aftermath of the tsunami.

It then met for the first time in 2007 on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) summit.

The intention was to enhance maritime cooperation between the four nations.

Significance of the grouping:

Quad is an opportunity for like-minded countries to collaborate on projects of mutual interest.

Members share a vision of an open and free Indo-Pacific. 

Each is involved in the development and economic projects as well as in promoting maritime domain awareness and maritime security.

It is one of the many avenues for interaction among India, Australia, Japan, and the US and should not be seen in an exclusive context.

China View on Quad:

There is a general understanding that the Quad would not take on a military dimension against any country. 

The strategic community in China, nevertheless, had branded it an emerging “Asian NATO”.

Notably, the Japanese PM address to the Indian Parliament gave a fresh impetus to the Quad concept. 

This recognized the economic rise of India.

Need for formalization:

Despite renewed efforts, the QUAD has faced criticism over its lack of formal structure. 

There have been calls for institutionalization, a formal agreement to transform the group into a formidable anti-China bloc.

A lot has changed over the years. Each member state has faced the heat of China increased aggression.

China has grown in might and influence and is keen on picking up fights.

After attempting to influence Australia domestic policies, it slapped punitive tariffs on the country.

It is engaged in what has become a routine border confrontation with India.

China has flared up territorial disputes with Japan with regards to the Senkaku Islands and is battling a fully-fledged trade war with the United States.


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Extinction Rebellion (GS Paper 3 Internal Security)

Delhi Police have named environmental activists Disha Ravi, Nikita Jacob, and Shantanu Muluk in an FIR.

These four are volunteers of Extinction Rebellion which is a global environmental movement.

Extinction Rebellion:

It was initially launched in the United Kingdom on October 31, 2018, as a response to a report by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Now, it is a global movement that seeks to “rebel”, and asks groups to “self-organize”, without the need for anyone permission.

It demands the groups to come up with collective action plans as long as they adhere to the group core principles and values.

It is a decentralized, international, and politically non-partisan movement using non-violent direct action and civil disobedience to persuade governments to act justly on the Climate and Ecological Emergency.

The group has “three core demands” of governments around the world.

It wants governments to “Tell the Truth”, to “Act Now”, and to “Go Beyond Politics” to confront the climate and ecological emergency that the world is faced with.

The issue:

These activists are in the custody of the Delhi Police for editing and sharing a toolkit with anti-climate change campaigner Greta Thunberg.

Some others have also been booked for coordinating with pro-Khalistan outfit Poetic Justice Foundation (PFJ) in connection with protest by farmers unions over the new farm laws.

What is a toolkit?

A toolkit has become a handy tool in sustaining a movement or campaign in times of social media influences.

It is a document created as an explainer on an issue as a guide to everybody who is associated with the campaign or can be roped in to give a fillip to the campaign.

It also provides a roadmap of how to take forward the campaign or agitation explaining what needs to be done, when, and how.


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Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (GS Paper 1 History)

The Prime Minister has paid tributes to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, on his Jayanti.

Shivaji Maharaj:

Shivaji was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. 

Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. 

In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (emperor) of his realm at Raigad.

Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, and Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers.

Shivaji military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy. 

Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organizations. 

He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of the Marathi language.


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Mahabahu-Brahmaputra Programme (GS Paper 2 Governance)

The Prime Minister has launched multiple initiatives in Assam. 

It includes the Mahabahu-Brahmaputra Programme and the 2 bridges across the Brahmaputra.

Mahabahu-Brahmaputra Programme:

It will provide seamless connectivity to the Eastern parts of India. 

It includes various development activities for the people living around River Brahmaputra and River Barak.

Key Initiatives under the Mahabahu-Brahmaputra programme:

Ro-pax Vessl Services are water transport services. 

It launched between Neemati Ghat (Jorhat) and Majuli island, North Guwahati and South Guwahati as well as Dhubri and Hatsingimari. 

The benefits of this service include a reduction in travel time, vehicular emission and traffic on the road.

Inland Water Transport(IWT) Terminal will be built at Jogighopa in Assam. 

The terminal will help in reducing the traffic on the Siliguri Corridor towards Kolkata and Haldia. 

It will facilitate the uninterrupted movement of cargo to the various North-Eastern States like Meghalaya and Tripura and Bhutan and Bangladesh as well.

E-Portals are launched to promote ease of doing business.

Car-D (Cargo Data) portal will collate cargo and cruise data on a real-time basis.

PANI (Portal for Asset and Navigation Information) will act as a one-stop solution for providing information about river navigation and infrastructure.

Dhubri – Phulbari Bridge

It is a proposed bridge over the Brahmaputra River. 

It will connect Assam Dhubri with Meghalaya Phulbari.

The bridge is planned to be completed by 2026–27. It would be India longest bridge over water, which is more than 19 km.

Majuli Bridge:

The Bridge will connect Jorhat to Majuli (Nemati ghat to Kamlabari ghat). 

The total length of this bridge is 6.8 Km.

This bridge will provide connectivity to Majuli Island. 

This island is the cultural capital and cradle of Assamese civilization for the past 500 years.

Majuli Island:

It is the world largest river island located in the Brahmaputra River, Assam. 

In 2016, it became the first island to be made a district in India.

The island is formed by the River Subansiri in the north and River Brahmaputra in the south.

The island is the nerve centre of neo-Vaishnavite culture. 

It has many Sattras (religious and cultural institutions).

The tribal communities living on the island include the Misings, the Deoris, and the Sonowal Kacharis.


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